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Review: Production factors affecting poultry carcass and meat quality attributes

Abstract : Poultry meat mainly comes from standard production system using high growth rate strains reared under indoor intensive conditions. However, it is possible to find also different alternative systems using outdoor extensive rearing conditions and slow-growing lines. These different production systems can affect carcass and meat quality. In this review, quality has been broken down into six properties: commercial, organoleptic, nutritional, technological, sanitary and image, the latter covering the ethical, cultural and environmental dimensions associated with the way the meat is produced, as well as its origin and being particularly valued in many quality labels. The quality of meat is built and can deteriorate along the continuum from the conception of the animal to the fork. Our review details the different factors implicated in the determinism of poultry meat properties and pinpoints critical periods, such as the preslaughter and slaughter periods, and key factors, such as the feeding regimen, via its direct effect on the fatty acid profile, the antioxidant and volatile compound contents, and indirect effects mediated via the growth rate of the bird. Our review also highlights potential antagonisms between different dimensions of quality. The genetic selection for breast meat yield, for example, has been effective in producing carcasses with higher meat yield, but resulting since a decade in the increased occurrence of quality defects and myopathies (white striping, wooden breast, spaghetti meat and deep pectoral disease). Outdoor access has positive effects on the image and nutritional properties (through its effect on the fatty acid profile of meat lipids), but it increases the exposition risk to environmental contaminants and pathologies (parasites, virus, bacteria); it also increases the variability in meat quality linked to the variability of animal performance and slaughter age. The orientation towards more agro-ecological low-input farming systems may present benefits for the image and nutritional properties, but also risks for the commercial (low carcass weight and low breast yield, irregularity in supply), organoleptic (stronger flavour, less tender and darker colour of the meat) and in terms of variability of the different properties that constitute quality. Efforts should be made in the future to better take into account the various dimensions of quality, in consumer information, payment to farmers and genetic selection.
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Submitted on : Friday, November 12, 2021 - 2:27:08 PM
Last modification on : Friday, November 26, 2021 - 3:46:04 AM

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Elisabeth Baéza, Laurent Guillier, Massimiliano Petracci. Review: Production factors affecting poultry carcass and meat quality attributes. animal, Published by Elsevier (since 2021) / Cambridge University Press (until 2020), In press, ⟨10.1016/j.animal.2021.100331⟩. ⟨anses-03426683⟩

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