Review and analysis of occurrence, exposure and toxicity of cyanobacteria toxins in food

Abstract : This report presents the extensive literature search conducted on 1) the occurrence of different cyanotoxins in food matrices; 2) the analytical methods for their detection; 3) their toxicological profile; 3) the environmental factors affecting toxicity of cyanobacterial population and 4) the combined effects of mixtures of cyanotoxins and other chemicals. It also includes a review of guidelines values or health-alert levels for cyanotoxins in food (or drinking water) adopted worldwide. The methodological aspects and the queries used in the extensive literature search, the collection and screening of retrieved papers and the inventory are briefly described in the report; all details are available in 3 supplementary appendices to this report. The analysis of collected papers indicated that most of them are focused on a single microcystin (MC) variant (MC-LR) out of the almost 100 MC known. Many studies on occurrence are affected by limited quality, due to analytical drawbacks in the detection methods and were not considered in the exposure assessment. Toxicity studies useful for the derivation of health based reference values are few, being many of them carried out using i.p. injection, which is poorly representative of actual human exposure. In addition, those toxicological studies carried out with poorly characterised cyanobacterial extracts or focused on single parameters, using a single dose, devoted to elucidation of mechanism of action, reporting qualitative description of effects were not used for data extraction. The relevant exposure scenarios are also described, although being the available data on exposure very limited, no definite conclusion on the health risks for the exposed population could be drawn. However, the possibility of risky exposure is evidenced for fish and shellfish consumers and for blue-green algae supplements (BGAS) as well in relation to MC contamination. Finally, many data gaps were identified.
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Rapport paru dans EFSA Supporting Publications, 2016, vol13, n°2. 2016, pp.1-309. 〈10.2903/sp.efsa.2016.EN-998〉
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Emanuela Testai, Franca Buratti,, Enzo Funari, Maura Manganelli, Vichi Susanna, et al.. Review and analysis of occurrence, exposure and toxicity of cyanobacteria toxins in food. Rapport paru dans EFSA Supporting Publications, 2016, vol13, n°2. 2016, pp.1-309. 〈10.2903/sp.efsa.2016.EN-998〉. 〈anses-01348179〉

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