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Contribution à l'étude de nouveaux agents antiamibiens dans un modèle expérimental de kératite à Acanthamoeba chez le rat

Abstract : Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) is a rare and severe form of infectious keratitis,which is potentially sight-threatening. The infection is caused by Acanthamoeba spp.a common protozoan present in soil, air and water. Up to 85% of AK cases areassociated with contact lens wearing, more rarely after corneal injury.Currently, there are no agents approved for the treatment of AK in theEuropean Union or in the United States of America. In recent years, combinations ofunlicensed anti-amoebic agents such as biguanides and diamidines have been usedas the reference treatment. Treatment regimens and concentrations of active agentsare based on empirical data. Recently, voriconazole, a mono-triazole, wassuccessfully used to treat cases of human AK. Despite this, the ophthalmologicalcommunity is most often faced with severe forms of the disease with severemanagement difficulties and sometimes with a situation of therapeutic impasse. Thefunctional and anatomical loss of an eye can occur.Several agents and routes of administration have been tested in a rat model ofAK. First, as part of the European ODAK project (Orphan drug for AcanthamoebaKeratitis), our work suggested that a concentration of PHMB eye drops greater thanor equal to 0.04% should be preferred. Second, we were able to show the superiorityof voriconazole in eye drops compared to the oral route. Finally, our study on thepharmacokinetics of voriconazole and posaconazole after intrastromal injections,demonstrates their low utility in human because of the need for frequent reinjection.Nevertheless, additional analyses are necessary to confirm the interest ofposaconazole eye drops. All of this work could make it possible to adapt thetherapeutic protocols of AK.
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Submitted on : Saturday, October 17, 2020 - 1:02:49 AM
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Julie Gueudry. Contribution à l'étude de nouveaux agents antiamibiens dans un modèle expérimental de kératite à Acanthamoeba chez le rat. Médecine humaine et pathologie. Normandie Université, 2018. Français. ⟨NNT : 2018NORMR057⟩. ⟨tel-02969904⟩

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