F. Bergamin, L. Saurer, V. Neuhaus, K. C. Mccullough, and A. Summerfield, Porcine B-cell activating factor promotes anti-FMDV antibodies in vitro but not in vivo after DNA vaccination of pigs, Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, vol.120, issue.3-4, pp.115-123, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vetimm.2007.06.021

F. Sobrino and F. Rodriguez, DNA vaccines expressing B and T cell epitopes can 406 protect mice from FMDV infection in the absence of specific humoral responses, Vaccine, vol.24, pp.407-3889, 2006.

L. Cedillo-barron, M. Foster-cuevas, G. J. Belsham, F. Lefevre, and R. M. Parkhouse, 409 Induction of a protective response in swine vaccinated with DNA encoding foot-and- 410 mouth disease virus empty capsid proteins and the 3D RNA polymerase, J Gen Virol, vol.411, pp.82-1713, 2001.

F. Lefevre and R. M. Parkhouse, Immunogenicity of plasmids encoding T and B 414 cell epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in swine, Vaccine, vol.21, pp.4261-415, 2003.

L. Chen and H. Shao, Extract from Agaricus blazei Murill can enhance immune responses 417 elicited by DNA vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease, Vet Immunol Immunopathol, vol.418, issue.109, pp.177-182, 2006.

G. Chenard, K. Miedema, P. Moonen, R. S. Schrijver, and A. Dekker, A solid-phase blocking ELISA for detection of type O foot-and-mouth disease virus antibodies suitable for mass serology, Journal of Virological Methods, vol.107, issue.1, pp.89-98, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0166-0934(02)00196-9

S. J. Cox, N. Aggarwal, R. J. Statham, and P. V. Barnett, Longevity of antibody and cytokine responses following vaccination with high potency emergency FMD vaccines, Vaccine, vol.21, issue.13-14, pp.1336-1347, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00691-6

D. Dory, A. M. Torché, V. Béven, P. Blanchard, C. Loizel et al., Effective protection of pigs against lethal Pseudorabies virus infection after a single injection of low-dose Sindbis-derived plasmids encoding PrV gB, gC and gD glycoproteins, Vaccine, vol.23, issue.26, pp.3483-3491, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2004.10.050

Y. Du, P. Jiang, Y. Li, H. He, W. Jiang et al., Immune responses of two recombinant adenoviruses expressing VP1 antigens of FMDV fused with porcine granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor, Vaccine, vol.25, issue.49, pp.8209-8219, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.09.062

S. Chada, D. Brumm, T. A. Banks, S. J. Mento, D. J. Jolly et al., 434 Sindbis virus DNA-based expression vectors: utility for in vitro and in vivo gene 435 transfer, J Virol, vol.70, pp.508-519, 1996.

V. Dufour, S. Chevallier, R. Cariolet, S. Somasundaram, F. Lefèvre et al., Induction of porcine cytokine mRNA expression after DNA immunization and 438 pseudorabies virus infection, J Interferon Cytokine Res, vol.437, issue.20, pp.885-890, 2000.

H. Fan, T. Tong, H. Chen, and A. Guo, Immunization of DNA vaccine encoding C3d-VP1 fusion enhanced protective immune response against foot-and-mouth disease virus, Virus Genes, vol.72, issue.2, pp.347-357, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/s11262-007-0105-0

R. Gravier, D. Dory, M. Laurentie, S. Bougeard, R. Cariolet et al., In vivo tissue distribution and kinetics of a pseudorabies virus plasmid DNA vaccine after intramuscular injection in swine, Vaccine, vol.25, issue.39-40, pp.6930-6938, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2007.07.001

M. J. Grubman and B. Baxt, Foot-and-Mouth Disease, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.17, issue.2, pp.465-493, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/CMR.17.2.465-493.2004

H. Guo, Z. Liu, S. Sun, H. Bao, Y. Chen et al., Immune response in 447 guinea pigs vaccinated with DNA vaccine of foot-and-mouth disease virus O/China99, Vaccine, vol.23, pp.448-3236, 2005.

H. C. Guo, Z. X. Liu, S. Q. Sun, Q. W. Leng, D. Li et al., The Effect of Bovine IFN-?? on the Immune Response in Guinea Pigs Vaccinated with DNA Vaccine of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus, Acta Biochimica et Biophysica Sinica, vol.36, issue.10, pp.701-706, 2004.
DOI : 10.1093/abbs/36.10.701

U. K. Hahn, M. Alex, C. P. Czerny, R. Bohm, and W. Beyer, Protection of mice against challenge with Bacillus anthracis STI spores after DNA vaccination, International Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol.294, issue.1, pp.35-44, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijmm.2003.12.002

S. M. Chang and T. A. Banks, DNA immunization against herpes simplex virus: 459 enhanced efficacy using a Sindbis virus-based vector, J Virol, vol.72, pp.950-958, 1998.

S. A. Kim, C. M. Liang, I. C. Cheng, Y. C. Cheng, M. T. Chiao et al., DNA vaccination against foot-and-mouth disease via electroporation: study of molecular approaches for enhancing VP1 antigenicity, The Journal of Gene Medicine, vol.92, issue.9, pp.1182-1191, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/jgm.941

A. M. King, B. O. Underwood, D. Mccahon, J. W. Newman, and F. Brown, Biochemical identification of viruses causing the 1981 outbreaks of foot and mouth disease in the UK, Nature, vol.71, issue.5832, pp.479-480, 1981.
DOI : 10.1038/293479a0

J. R. Kirman, T. Turon, H. Su, A. Li, C. Kraus et al., Enhanced Immunogenicity to Mycobacterium tuberculosis by Vaccination with an Alphavirus Plasmid Replicon Expressing Antigen 85A, Infection and Immunity, vol.71, issue.1, pp.575-470, 2003.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.71.1.575-579.2003

W. W. Leitner, H. Ying, D. A. Driver, T. W. Dubensky, and N. P. Restifo, Enhancement 472 of tumor-specific immune response with plasmid DNA replicon vectors, Cancer Res, vol.473, pp.60-51, 2000.

W. W. Leitner, H. Ying, and N. P. Restifo, DNA and RNA-based vaccines: principles, progress and prospects, Vaccine, vol.18, issue.9-10, pp.765-777, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0264-410X(99)00271-6

URL : https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1986720/pdf

Y. Li, N. Aggarwal, H. H. Takamatsu, C. M. Sterling, C. Voyce et al., Enhancing immune responses against a plasmid DNA vaccine encoding a FMDV empty capsid from serotype O, Vaccine, vol.24, issue.21, pp.4602-4606, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2005.08.032

C. Loizel, P. Blanchard, B. Grasland, D. Dory, A. Oger et al., Effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on post-weaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in porcine circovirus type-2-transfected piglets, International Journal of Experimental Pathology, vol.96, issue.1, pp.33-43, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.0959-9673.2005.00409.x

H. B. Mann and D. R. Whitney, On a Test of Whether one of Two Random Variables is Stochastically Larger than the Other, The Annals of Mathematical Statistics, vol.18, issue.1, pp.50-60, 1947.
DOI : 10.1214/aoms/1177730491

I. Schwartz-cornil, Efficacy of particle-based DNA delivery for vaccination of 492 sheep against FMDV OIE Manual of Standards for diagnostics tests and vaccines, Vaccine, vol.24, pp.7204-7213, 2000.

K. K. Peachman, M. Rao, and C. R. Alving, Immunization with DNA through the skin, Methods, vol.31, issue.3, pp.232-242, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S1046-2023(03)00137-3

M. Singh, D. Lew, M. A. Yankauckas, S. M. Baird, and G. H. Rhodes, Intradermal 501 gene immunization: The possible role of DNA uptake in the induction of cellular 502 immunity to viruses, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 91, pp.9519-9523, 1994.

M. J. Rodrigo and J. Dopazo, Evolutionary analysis of the picornavirus family, Journal of Molecular Evolution, vol.9, issue.4, pp.362-371, 1995.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00164022

M. D. Ryan, G. J. Belsham, and A. M. King, Specificity of enzyme-substrate interactions in foot-and-mouth disease virus polyprotein processing, Virology, vol.173, issue.1, pp.35-45, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0042-6822(89)90219-5

P. Serafini, R. Carbley, K. A. Noonan, G. Tan, V. Bronte et al., High-Dose Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor-Producing Vaccines Impair the Immune Response through the Recruitment of Myeloid Suppressor Cells, Cancer Research, vol.64, issue.17, pp.6337-6343, 2004.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-0757

F. Sobrino, M. Saiz, M. A. Jimenez-clavero, J. I. Nunez, M. F. Rosas et al., Foot-and-mouth disease virus: a long known virus, but a current threat, Veterinary Research, vol.32, issue.1, pp.1-30, 2001.
DOI : 10.1051/vetres:2001106

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00902685

B. Charley, Enhanced protective response and immuno-adjuvant effects of 516 porcine GM-CSF on DNA vaccination of pigs against Aujeszky's disease virus, Vet. 517 Immunol. Immunopathol, vol.70, pp.277-287, 1999.

C. Stellmann, P. Vannier, G. Chappuis, A. Brun, M. Dauvergne et al., The potency testing of pseudorabies vaccines in pigs. A proposal for a quantitative criterion and a minimum requirement, Journal of Biological Standardization, vol.17, issue.1, pp.17-521, 1989.
DOI : 10.1016/0092-1157(89)90024-3

H. T. Wong, S. C. Cheng, F. W. Sin, E. W. Chan, Z. T. Sheng et al., A DNA vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease elicits an immune response in swine which is enhanced by co-administration with interleukin-2, Vaccine, vol.20, issue.21-22, pp.2641-2647, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0264-410X(02)00212-8

C. Xiao, H. Jin, Y. Hu, Y. Kang, J. Wang et al., Enhanced protective efficacy and reduced viral load of foot-and-mouth disease DNA vaccine with co-stimulatory molecules as the molecular adjuvants, Antiviral Research, vol.76, issue.1, pp.11-20, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.antiviral.2007.04.002

W. Yin, P. Xiang, and Q. Li, Investigations of the effect of DNA size in transient transfection assay using dual luciferase system, Analytical Biochemistry, vol.346, issue.2, pp.289-294, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ab.2005.08.029

H. Y. Zhang, S. H. Sun, Y. J. Guo, F. J. Zhou, Z. H. Chen et al., Immune response in mice inoculated with plasmid DNAs containing multiple-epitopes of foot-and-mouth disease virus, Vaccine, vol.21, issue.32, pp.4704-4707, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0264-410X(03)00519-X

W. Zhu, C. E. Thomas, and P. F. Sparling, DNA Immunization of mice with a plasmid encoding Neisseria gonorrhea PorB protein by intramuscular injection and epidermal particle bombardment, Vaccine, vol.22, issue.5-6, pp.660-669, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.vaccine.2003.08.036