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Journal Articles Parasites & Vectors Year : 2022

Diagnosis of animal trypanosomoses: proper use of current tools and future prospects

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Alireza Sazmand
Marisa Gonzatti

Abstract

Reliable diagnostic tools are needed to choose the appropriate treatment and proper control measures for animal trypanosomoses, some of which are pathogenic. Trypanosoma cruzi , for example, is responsible for Chagas disease in Latin America. Similarly, pathogenic animal trypanosomoses of African origin (ATAO), including a variety of Trypanosoma species and subspecies, are currently found in Africa, Latin America and Asia. ATAO limit global livestock productivity and impact food security and the welfare of domestic animals. This review focusses on implementing previously reviewed diagnostic methods, in a complex epizootiological scenario, by critically assessing diagnostic results at the individual or herd level. In most cases, a single diagnostic method applied at a given time does not unequivocally identify the various parasitological and disease statuses of a host. These include “non-infected”, “asymptomatic carrier”, “sick infected”, “cured/not cured” and/or “multi-infected”. The diversity of hosts affected by these animal trypanosomoses and their vectors (or other routes of transmission) is such that integrative, diachronic approaches are needed that combine: (i) parasite detection, (ii) DNA, RNA or antigen detection and (iii) antibody detection, along with epizootiological information. The specificity of antibody detection tests is restricted to the genus or subgenus due to cross-reactivity with other Trypanosoma spp. and Trypanosomatidae, but sensitivity is high. The DNA-based methods implemented over the last three decades have yielded higher specificity and sensitivity for active infection detection in hosts and vectors. However, no single diagnostic method can detect all active infections and/or trypanosome species or subspecies. The proposed integrative approach will improve the prevention, surveillance and monitoring of animal trypanosomoses with the available diagnostic tools. However, further developments are required to address specific gaps in diagnostic methods and the sustainable control or elimination of these diseases.

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Attribution - CC BY 4.0

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Marc Desquesnes, Alireza Sazmand, Marisa Gonzatti, Alain Boulangé, Géraldine Bossard, et al.. Diagnosis of animal trypanosomoses: proper use of current tools and future prospects. Parasites & Vectors, 2022, 15, pp.235. ⟨10.1186/s13071-022-05352-1⟩. ⟨anses-03927668⟩
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