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Influence of Maize Residues in Shaping Soil Microbiota and Fusarium spp. Communities

Abstract : Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating fungal disease of small grain cereals including wheat. Causal fungal agents colonize various components of the field during their life cycle including previous crop residues, soil, and grains. Although soil and residues constitute the main inoculum source, these components have received much less attention than grains. This study aimed at disentangling the role of previous crop residues in shaping soil microbiota, including Fusarium spp. communities, in fields under wheat-maize rotation. Such knowledge may contribute to better understand the complex interactions between Fusarium spp. and soil microbiota. Dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities, with a special focus on Fusarium spp., were monitored in soils at 3 time points: during wheat cultivation (April 2015 and 2017) and after maize harvest (November 2016) and in maize residues taken from fields after harvest. Shifts in microbiota were also evaluated under mesocosm experiments using soils amended with maize residues. Fusarium graminearum and F. avenaceum were predominant on maize residues but did not remain in soils during wheat cultivation. Differences in soil bacterial diversity and compositions among years were much lower than variation between fields, suggesting that bacterial communities are field-specific and more conserved over time. In contrast, soil fungal diversity and compositions were more influenced by sampling time. Maize residues, left after harvest, led to a soil enrichment with several fungal genera, including Epicoccum, Fusarium, Vishniacozyma, Papiliotrema, Sarocladium, Xenobotryosphaeria, Ramularia, Cladosporium, Cryptococcus, and Bullera, but not with bacterial genera. Likewise, under mesocosm conditions, the addition of maize residues had a stronger influence on fungal communities than on bacterial communities. In particular, addition of maize significantly increased soil fungal richness, while bacteria were much less prone to changes. Based on co-occurrence networks, OTUs negatively correlated to Fusarium spp. were identified, such as those assigned to Epicoccum and Vishniacozyma. Altogether, our results allowed to gain a deeper insight into the complex microbiota interactions in soils, with bacteria and fungi responding differently to environmental disturbances.
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Submitted on : Friday, September 9, 2022 - 4:14:50 PM
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José Cobo-Díaz, Fabienne Legrand, Gaétan Le Floch, Adeline Picot. Influence of Maize Residues in Shaping Soil Microbiota and Fusarium spp. Communities. Microbial ecology, Springer Verlag, 2022, 83 (3), pp.702-713. ⟨10.1007/s00248-021-01797-6⟩. ⟨anses-03774009⟩



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