A. Alcamí, A. L. Carrascosa, and E. E. Viñuela, Saturable binding sites mediate the entry of African swine fever virus into Vero cells, Virology, vol.168, issue.2, pp.393-398, 1989.

. Anses, Note d'appui scientifique et technique relatif à l'évaluation de l'efficacité des produits biocides destinés à être utilisés pour la désinfection lors de dangers sanitaires (part1) (saisine 2015-SA-0178), 2016.

S. Blome, C. Gabriel, and M. Beer, Pathogenesis of African swine fever in domestic pigs and European wild boar, Virus Research, vol.173, issue.1, pp.122-130, 2013.

S. Blome, C. Gabriel, K. Dietze, A. Breithaupt, and M. Beer, High virulence of African swine fever virus caucasus isolate in European wild boars of all ages, Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol.18, issue.4, p.708, 2012.

O. Bourry, E. Hutet, M. L. Dimna, F. Paboeuf, and M. Potier, Evaluation of ASF virus inactivation, Workshop on Laboratory Diagnosis and Control of CSF and ASF, pp.29-30, 2018.

A. Canals, F. Alonso, J. Tomillo, and J. Dominguez, Analysis of T lymphocyte subsets proliferating in response to infective and UV-inactivated African swine fever viruses, Veterinary Microbiology, vol.33, issue.1-4, pp.117-127, 1992.

A. L. Carrascosa, M. J. Bustos, and P. De-leon, Methods for growing and titrating african swine fever virus: Field and laboratory samples, Current Protocols in Cell Biology (SUPPL, vol.53, 2011.
DOI : 10.1002/0471143030.cb2614s53

A. L. Carrascosa, M. J. Bustos, M. L. Nogal, G. González-de, Y. Buitrago et al., Apoptosis induced in an early step of African swine fever virus entry into vero cells does not require virus replication, Virology, vol.294, issue.2, pp.372-382, 2002.

C. Carrillo, . Mv, C. L. Borca, D. V. Afonso, D. L. Onisk et al., Long-term persistent infection of swine monocytes/macrophages with African swine fever virus, Journal of Virology, vol.68, issue.1, pp.580-583, 1994.

C. Chastel, G. L. J-y.-monnat, G. Lay, and . Balouet, Infestation et hyperinfestation de la Mouette tridactyle, Rissa tridactyla L., par des Tiques [Ixodes (Ceratixodes) uriae, Ornithodoros (Alectorobius) maritimus]-Conséquences pathologiques, Annales de parasitologie humaine et comparée, vol.62, issue.5, pp.492-504, 1987.
DOI : 10.1051/parasite/1987625492

URL : https://www.parasite-journal.org/articles/parasite/pdf/1987/05/parasite1987625p492.pdf

E. Chenais, K. Depner, V. Guberti, K. Dietze, A. Viltrop et al., Epidemiological considerations on African swine fever in Europe, Porcine Health Management, vol.5, issue.1, p.6, 2014.

E. Chenais, S. Sternberg-lewerin, S. Boqvist, L. Liu, N. Leblanc et al., African swine fever outbreak on a medium-sized farm in Uganda: biosecurity breaches and within-farm virus contamination, Tropical Animal Health and Production, vol.49, issue.2, pp.337-346, 2017.

K. Davies, L. C. Goatley, C. Guinat, C. L. Netherton, S. Gubbins et al., Survival of African Swine Fever Virus in Excretions from Pigs Experimentally Infected with Avis de l'Anses Saisine, 2017.

, Saisines liées n°2018-SA-0210

, /1 Isolate, the Georgia, vol.64, pp.425-431, 2007.

H. C. De-carvalho-ferreira, E. Weesendorp, A. Elbers, A. Bouma, S. Quak et al., African swine fever virus excretion patterns in persistently infected animals: a quantitative approach, Veterinary Microbiology, vol.160, issue.3, pp.327-340, 2012.

H. C. De-carvalho-ferreira, E. Weesendorp, S. Quak, J. A. Stegeman, and W. Loeffen, Quantification of airborne African swine fever virus after experimental infection, Veterinary Microbiology, vol.165, issue.3-4, pp.243-251, 2013.

H. C. De-carvalho-ferreira, E. Weesendorp, S. Quak, J. A. Stegeman, and W. Loeffen, Suitability of faeces and tissue samples as a basis for non-invasive sampling for African swine fever in wild boar, Veterinary Microbiology, vol.172, issue.3-4, pp.449-454, 2014.

D. E. Detray, African swine fever in wart hogs (Phacochoerus aethiopicus), Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, vol.130, issue.12, pp.537-540, 1957.

L. K. Dixon, A. G. Chapman, C. L. Netherton, and C. Upton, African swine fever virus replication and genomics, Virus Research, vol.173, issue.1, pp.3-14, 2013.
DOI : 10.1016/j.virusres.2012.10.020

A. I. Donaldson and N. P. Ferris, The survival of some air-borne animal viruses in relation to relative humidity, Veterinary Microbiology, vol.1, issue.4, pp.90056-90056, 1976.

M. Dupraz, C. Toty, E. Devillers, T. Blanchon, E. Elguero et al., Population structure of the soft tick Ornithodoros maritimus and its associated infectious agents within a colony of its seabird host Larus michahellis, International Journal for Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, vol.6, issue.2, pp.122-130, 2017.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-02007408

, Scientific opinion on African swine fever, EFSA Journal, vol.8, issue.3, p.1556, 2010.

, Scientific opinion on African swine fever, EFSA Journal, vol.12, issue.4, p.3628, 2014.

S. Filatov, Ornithodoros verrucosus in Ukraine: Evaluating regional presence and its possible impact on the epidemiology of African swine fever, International Congress of Entomology, 2016.

I. H. Franke-whittle and H. Insam, Treatment alternatives of slaughterhouse wastes, and their effect on the inactivation of different pathogens: A review, Critical Reviews in Microbiology, vol.39, issue.2, pp.139-151, 2013.

C. Gabriel, S. Blome, A. Malogolovkin, S. Parilov, D. Kolbasov et al., Characterization of African swine fever virus Caucasus isolate in European wild boars, Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol.17, issue.12, p.2342, 2011.

P. Gale, Risks to farm animals from pathogens in composted catering waste containing meat, Veterinary Record, vol.155, issue.3, pp.77-82, 2004.

M. C. Gallardo, A. T. Reoyo, J. Fernández-pinero, I. Iglesias, M. J. Muñoz et al., African swine fever: A global view of the current challenge, Porcine Health Management, vol.1, 2015.

M. Garigliany, D. Desmecht, M. Tignon, D. Cassart, C. Lesenfant et al., Phylogeographic analysis of African swine fever virus, Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol.25, issue.1, p.184, 2018.

S. González, C. Mendoza, J. Sánchez-vizcaino, and E. F. Alonso, Inhibitory effect of African swine fever virus on lectin-dependent swine lymphocyte proliferation, Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, vol.26, issue.1, pp.71-80, 1990.

A. Greig, W. Et, and . Plowright, The excretion of two virulent strains of African swine fever virus by domestic pigs, Epidemiology & Infection, vol.68, issue.4, pp.673-682, 1970.

C. Guinat, A. L. Reis, C. L. Netherton, L. Goatley, D. U. Pfeiffer et al., Dynamics of African swine fever virus shedding and excretion in domestic pigs infected by intramuscular inoculation and contact transmission, Veterinary research, vol.45, issue.1, p.93, 2014.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01290592

B. Haas, R. Ahl, R. Bohm, and D. Strauch, Inactivation of viruses in liquid manure, Rev Sci Tech, vol.14, issue.2, pp.435-480, 1995.

, Avis de l'Anses Saisine

, Saisines liées n°2018-SA-0210

R. T. Haug, Kinetics of heat inactivation. Edité par Haug RT, The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering, 1993.

R. A. Heckert, M. Best, L. T. Jordan, G. C. Dulac, D. L. Eddington et al., Efficacy of vaporized hydrogen peroxide against exotic animal viruses, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.63, issue.10, pp.3916-3918, 1997.

J. Hone, W. Et, and . Martin, A study of dung decay and plot size for surveying feral pigs using dung counts, Wildlife Research, vol.25, issue.3, pp.255-260, 1998.

I. D. Kalmar, A. B. Cay, and M. Tignon, Sensitivity of African swine fever virus (ASFV) to heat, alkalinity and peroxide treatment in presence or absence of porcine plasma, Veterinary Microbiology, vol.219, pp.144-149, 2018.

D. P. King, S. M. Reid, G. H. Hutchings, S. S. Grierson, P. J. Wilkinson et al., Development of a TaqMan® PCR assay with internal amplification control for the detection of African swine fever virus, Journal of Virological Methods, vol.107, issue.1, pp.53-61, 2003.

S. B. Kleiboeker, G. A. Et, and . Scoles, Pathogenesis of African swine fever virus in Ornithodoros ticks, Animal Health Research Reviews, vol.2, issue.2, pp.121-128, 2001.

J. Kovalenko, M. Sidorov, and L. Burba, Biological properties of African swine fever virus, Dokl. vses. Akad. sel'shokhoz. Nauk, vol.1, pp.35-40, 1964.

P. W. Krug, T. Davis, C. O'brien, M. Larocco, and L. L. Rodriguez, Disinfection of transboundary animal disease viruses on surfaces used in pork packing plants, Veterinary Microbiology, vol.219, pp.219-225, 2018.

P. W. Krug, C. R. Larson, A. C. Eslami, and L. L. Rodriguez, Disinfection of foot-and-mouth disease and African swine fever viruses with citric acid and sodium hypochlorite on birch wood carriers, Veterinary Microbiology, vol.156, issue.1-2, pp.96-101, 2012.

P. W. Krug, L. J. Lee, A. C. Eslami, C. R. Larson, and L. Rodriguez, Chemical disinfection of high-consequence transboundary animal disease viruses on nonporous surfaces, Biologicals, vol.39, issue.4, pp.231-235, 2011.

A. Malogolovkin, G. Burmakina, I. Titov, A. Sereda, A. Gogin et al., Comparative analysis of african swine fever virus genotypes and serogroups, Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol.21, issue.2, pp.312-315, 2015.

P. D. Mckercher, . Rj, J. J. Yedloutschnig, R. Callis, G. F. Murphy et al., Survival of viruses in "Prosciutto di Parma"(Parma ham), Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology Journal, vol.20, issue.4, pp.267-272, 1987.

J. W. Mcvicar, Quantitative aspects of the transmission of African swine fever, American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol.45, issue.8, pp.1535-1541, 1984.

J. W. Mcvicar, C. A. Mebus, A. Brynjolfsson, and J. S. Walker, Inactivation of African swine fever virus in tissues by gamma radiation, American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol.43, issue.2, pp.318-319, 1982.

C. Mebus, M. Arias, J. M. Pineda, J. Tapiador, C. House et al., Survival of several porcine viruses in different Spanish dry cured meat products, Food Chemistry, vol.59, issue.4, pp.555-559, 1997.

P. S. Mellor, R. P. Kitching, and P. J. Wilkinson, Mechanical transmission of capripox virus and African swine fever virus by Stomoxys calcitrans, Research in Veterinary Science, vol.43, issue.1, pp.109-112, 1987.

R. E. Montgomery, On a form of swine fever occurring in British East Africa, Journal of comparative pathology and therapeutics, vol.34, pp.159-191, 1921.

. Oie, African swine fever. Aetiologt, epidemiology, diagnosis, prevention and control, 2013.

A. S. Olesen, M. F. Hansen, T. B. Rasmussen, G. J. Belsham, R. Bødker et al., Survival and localization of African swine fever virus in stable flies, 2018.

, Avis de l'Anses Saisine

, SA-0218 feeder, Saisines liées, vol.222, pp.25-29, 2018.

A. S. Olesen, L. Lohse, A. Boklund, T. Halasa, G. J. Belsham et al., Short time window for transmissibility of African swine fever virus from a contaminated environment, Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 2018.

A. Olesen, L. S;, M. F. Lohse, A. Hansen, T. Boklund et al., Infection of pigs with African swine fever virus via ingestion of stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, vol.65, issue.5, pp.1152-1157, 2018.

A. S. Olesen, L. Lohse, A. Boklund, T. Halasa, C. Gallardo et al., Transmission of African swine fever virus from infected pigs by direct contact and aerosol routes, Veterinary Microbiology, vol.211, pp.92-102, 2017.

A. Ordas, E. S. Sanchez-botija, and . Diaz, CE/FAO research seminar, pp.23-25, 1981.

C. Oura, L. Edwards, and C. A. Batten, Virological diagnosis of African swine fevercomparative study of available tests, Virus Research, vol.173, issue.1, pp.150-158, 2013.

I. C. Pan and . Hess, Virulence in African swine fever: its measurement and implications, American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol.45, issue.2, pp.361-366, 1984.

M. L. Penrith and W. Vosloo, Review of African swine fever: Transmission, spread and control, Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, vol.80, issue.2, pp.58-62, 2009.

S. Petrini, F. Feliziani, C. Casciari, M. Giammarioli, C. Torresi et al., Survival of African swine fever virus (ASFV) in various traditional Italian dry-cured meat products, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol.162, pp.126-130, 2019.

J. Pietschmann, L. Mur, S. Blome, M. Beer, R. Pérez-sánchez et al., African swine fever virus transmission cycles in Central Europe: Evaluation of wild boar-soft tick contacts through detection of antibodies against Ornithodoros erraticus saliva antigen, BMC Veterinary Research, vol.12, issue.1, p.1, 2016.

W. Plowright, J. Et, and . Parker, The stability of African swine fever virus with particular reference to heat and pH inactivation, Archiv für die gesamte Virusforschung, vol.21, issue.3-4, pp.383-402, 1967.

J. M. Sánchez-vizcaíno, M. A. Neira, L. A. Zimmerman, . Karriker, . Ramirez et al., Diseases of swine, 2012.

J. M. Sánchez-vizcaíno, L. Mur, and B. Martínez-lópez, African swine fever (ASF): Five years around Europe, Veterinary Microbiology, vol.165, issue.1-2, pp.45-50, 2013.

J. Shirai, T. Kanno, Y. Tsuchiya, S. Mitsubayashi, and R. Seki, Effects of Chlorine, Iodine, and Quaternary Ammonium Compound Disinfectants on Several Exotic Disease Viruses, Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, vol.62, issue.1, pp.85-92, 2000.

I. P. Sindryakova, Y. P. Morgunov, A. Y. Chichikin, I. K. Gazaev, D. A. Kudryashov et al., The influence of temperature on the russian isolate of african swine fever virus in pork products and feed with extrapolation to natural conditions, Agricultural Biology, 2016.

S. S. Stone and W. R. Hess, Effects of some disinfectants on African swine fever virus, Applied microbiology, vol.25, issue.1, pp.115-122, 1973.

F. C. Thomas, . Ag, G. C. Davies, N. G. Dulac, G. Willis et al., Gamma ray inactivation of some animal viruses, Canadian Journal of Comparative Medicine, vol.45, issue.4, p.397, 1981.

M. Tignon, C. Gallardo, C. Iscaro, E. Hutet, Y. Van-der-stede et al., Development and inter-laboratory validation study of an improved new real-time PCR assay with internal control for detection and laboratory diagnosis of African swine fever virus, Journal of Virological Methods, vol.178, issue.1-2, pp.161-170, 2011.

, Avis de l'Anses Saisine

, Saisines liées n°2018-SA-0210

C. Turner, S. M. Et, and . Williams, Laboratory-scale inactivation of African swine fever virus and swine vesicular disease virus in pig slurry, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol.87, issue.1, pp.148-157, 1999.

C. Turner, S. M. Williams, C. H. Burton, J. W. Farrent, and P. J. Wilkinson, Laboratory scale inactivation of pig viruses in pig slurry and design of a pilot plant for thermal inactivation, vol.38, pp.79-86, 1998.

C. Turner, S. M. Williams, and P. J. Wilkinson, Recovery and assay of African swine fever and swine vesicular disease viruses from pig slurry, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol.87, issue.3, pp.447-453, 1999.

. Usda, Diesease response strategy African Swine Fever, 2013.

N. N. Vlasova, A. A. Varentsova, I. V. Shevchenko, I. Y. Zhukov, S. G. Remyga et al., Comparative Analysis of Clinical and Biological Characteristics of African Swine Fever Virus Isolates from 2013 Year Russian Federation, British Microbiology Research Journal, vol.5, issue.3, pp.203-2015, 2015.

P. J. Wilkinson, The persistence of African swine fever in Africa and the Mediterranean, Preventive Veterinary Medicine, vol.2, issue.1-4, pp.71-82, 1984.

P. J. Wilkinson, A. I. Donaldson, A. Greig, and E. W. Bruce, Transmission studies with African swine fever virus: infections of pigs by airborne virus, Journal of comparative pathology, vol.87, issue.3, pp.487-495, 1977.

P. J. Wilkinson, R. C. Wardley, and S. M. Williams, African swine fever virus (Malta/78) in pigs, Journal of comparative pathology, vol.91, issue.2, pp.277-284, 1981.

. Rapporteurs-m, Stéphane BERTAGNOLI -ENVT -Compétences en virologie, infectiologie, immunologie

, Mme Maria Eleni FILIPPITZI -Sciensano -Compétences épidémiologie, évaluation des risques

, épidémiologie, évaluation des risques, interface faune domestique faune sauvage M. François MEURENS -ONIRIS -Compétences en virologie

M. Gaelle, S. En-virologie, and C. Spécialisé,

, Les travaux, objets du présent rapport, ont été suivis et adoptés par le CES suivant : ? CES SABA des 11 décembre, 2018.

M. Président, . Gilles-meyer--professeur, B. Envt-+-virologie,-immunologie,-vaccinologie-membres-mme-catherine, and . Conférences, Oniris-Nantes + infectiologie, approche intégrée M. Stéphane BERTAGNOLI -Professeur, ENVT + virologie, immunologie, vaccination

M. and A. Boissy--chercheur, INRA Clermont + bien-être animal

M. Henri-jean-boulouis--professeur and . Enva-+-bactériologie,

M. Eric, COLLIN -Vétérinaire praticien + médecine vétérinaire, médicament vétérinaire, maladies vectorielles, maladies à prion M. Jean-Claude DESFONTIS -Professeur Oniris-Nantes + physiologie, bien-être animal

M. Maria-eleni-filippitzi--epidémiologiste and C. Épidémiologie, évaluation de risque M. David FRETIN -Chef de service, CODA-CERVA + bactériologie, zoonoses, diagnostic de laboratoire Avis de l'Anses Saisine

, Saisines liées n°2018-SA-0210

M. Emmanuelle and G. , VetAgro Sup + infectiologie, épidémiologie, évaluation de risque, faune sauvage M. Etienne GIRAUD -Chargé de recherche, INRA Tours + bactériologie M. Lionel GRISOT -Vétérinaire praticien + médecine vétérinaire

M. Nadia and H. Enva-+-infectiologie,

M. Viviane and H. , Anses Lyon + épidémiologie

M. Elsa, J. De-recherche, +. Clermont, and . Épidémiologie,

M. Sophie and L. E. Bouquin--le-neveu---epidémiologiste, Anses Ploufragan + épidémiologie

M. Sophie, L. E. Poder--alcon--maître-de-conférences, and I. Enva-+-virologie,

M. Elodie and L. Monchatre--directrice, Anses Nancy + virologie, épidémiologie, évaluation de risques, faune sauvage Mme Monique L'HOSTIS -Retraitée, Oniris Nantes + parasitologie M. François MEURENS -Professeur

M. Virginie, M. Ploufragan, and +. Épidémiologie, bien-être animal, approche intégrée M. Pierre MORMEDE -Directeur de recherche, INRA + bien-être animal

M. Hervé-morvan--vétérinaire-biologiste, Labocéa22 + bactériologie

, Mme Carine PARAUD -Anses Niort + parasitologie

P. Mme-ariane, . -chargée-d'étude, M. Oncfs-+-Épidémiologie,-Évaluation-de-risque,-faune-sauvage, . Michel, and . Pepin--professeur,

, Mme Carole PEROZ-SAPEDE -Maître de conférences, Oniris Nantes + infectiologie, maladies règlementées, approche intégrée

M. Claire, P. Maisons-alfort-+-bactériologie, M. De-laboratoire, . Claude, and . Saegerman--professeur,

M. Jean-pierre and . Vaillancourt--professeur,