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Is Drinking Water a Major Route of Human Exposure to Alkylphenol and Bisphenol Contaminants in France?

Abstract : The main objective of this study was to evaluate potential exposure of a significant part of the French population to alkylphenol and bisphenol contaminants due to water consumption. The occurrence of 11 alkylphenols and bisphenols was studied in raw water and treated water samples from public water systems. One sampling campaign was performed from October 2011 to May 2012. Sampling was equally distributed across 100 French departments. In total, 291 raw water samples and 291 treated water samples were analyzed in this study, representing approximately 20 % of the national water supply flow. The occurrence of the target compounds was also determined for 29 brands of bottled water (polyethylene terephthalate [PET] bottles, polycarbonate [PC] reusable containers, and aluminum cans [ACs]) and in 5 drinking water networks where epoxy resin has been used as coating for pipes. In raw water samples, the highest individual concentration was 1,430 ng/L for bisphenol A (BPA). Of the investigated compounds, nonylphenol (NP), nonylphenol 1-carboxylic acid (NP1EC), BPA, and nonylphenol 2-ethoxylate (NP2EO) predominated (detected in 18.6, 18.6, 14.4, and 10 % of samples, respectively). Geographical variability was observed with departments crossed by major rivers or with high population densities being more affected by contamination. In treated water samples, the highest individual concentration was 505 ng/L for NP. Compared with raw water, target compounds were found in lower amounts in treated water. This difference suggests a relative effectiveness of certain water treatments for the elimination of these pollutants; however, there is also their possible transformation by reaction with chlorine. No target compounds were found in drinking water pipes coated with epoxy resin, in PET bottled water, or in water from ACs. However, levels of BPA in PC bottled water ranged from 70 to 4,210 ng/L with greater level observed in newly manufactured bottles. 4-Tert-butylphenol was only detected in recently manufactured bottles. The values observed for the monitored compounds indicate that drinking water is most likely not the main source of exposure.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, October 24, 2018 - 3:48:47 PM
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Adeline Colin, Cristina Bach, Christophe Rosin, Jean-François Munoz, Xavier Dauchy. Is Drinking Water a Major Route of Human Exposure to Alkylphenol and Bisphenol Contaminants in France?. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Springer Verlag, 2014, 66 (1), pp.86 - 99. ⟨10.1007/s00244-013-9942-0⟩. ⟨anses-01903744⟩



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