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Preclinical Models for Acquired Resistance to Third-Generation EGFR Inhibitors in NSCLC: Functional Studies and Drug Combinations Used to Overcome Resistance

Abstract : Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are currently recommended as first-line treatment for advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with EGFR-activating mutations. Third-generation (3rd G) EGFR-TKIs, including osimertinib, offer an effective treatment option for patients with NSCLC resistant 1st and 2nd EGFR-TKIs. However, the efficacy of 3rd G EGFR-TKIs is limited by acquired resistance that has become a growing clinical challenge. Several clinical and preclinical studies are being carried out to better understand the mechanisms of resistance to 3rd G EGFR-TKIs and have revealed various genetic aberrations associated with molecular heterogeneity of cancer cells. Studies focusing on epigenetic events are limited despite several indications of their involvement in the development of resistance. Preclinical models, established in most cases in a similar manner, have shown different prevalence of resistance mechanisms from clinical samples. Clinically identified mechanisms include EGFR mutations that were not identified in preclinical models. Thus, NRAS genetic alterations were not observed in patients but have been described in cell lines resistant to 3rd G EGFR-TKI. Mainly, resistance to 3rd G EGFR-TKI in preclinical models is related to the activation of alternative signaling pathways through tyrosine kinase receptor (TKR) activation or to histological and phenotypic transformations. Yet, preclinical models have provided some insight into the complex network between dominant drivers and associated events that lead to the emergence of resistance and consequently have identified new therapeutic targets. This review provides an overview of preclinical studies developed to investigate the mechanisms of acquired resistance to 3rd G EGFR-TKIs, including osimertinib and rociletinib, across all lines of therapy. In fact, some of the models described were first generated to be resistant to first- and second-generation EGFR-TKIs and often carried the T790M mutation, while others had never been exposed to TKIs. The review further describes the therapeutic opportunities to overcome resistance, based on preclinical studies.
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Submitted on : Friday, May 6, 2022 - 1:30:51 PM
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Emna Mahfoudhi, Charles Ricordel, Gwendoline Lecuyer, Cécile Mouric, Hervé Lena, et al.. Preclinical Models for Acquired Resistance to Third-Generation EGFR Inhibitors in NSCLC: Functional Studies and Drug Combinations Used to Overcome Resistance. Frontiers in Oncology, Frontiers, 2022, 12, pp.853501. ⟨10.3389/fonc.2022.853501⟩. ⟨hal-03660230⟩



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